Chapter 4: From a University-run Enterprise to a Leading Group of Regional IT Industrial Clusters: In a Perspective of an Academia–Government–Industry Triple Helix
4. From a university-run enterprise to a leading group of regional IT industrial clusters: in a perspective of an academia–government– industry triple helix Chunyan Zhou INTRODUCTION The primary philosophy of universities in China is pragmatism to promote social productivity. In order to make up for the lack of financial allocation, universities are actively oriented to serving industry in technology improvement and development, in turn compensating for industry’s limited R&D capacity. Actually the university sector in China is very relevant. It currently employs 700 000 R&D personnel (who make up 25 per cent of the total of China’s R&D personnel); it hosts 142 (60 per cent) of the country’s State Key Laboratories, 102 (30 per cent) of the engineering research centres and engineering technology centres; coordinates twothirds of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC)supported research projects and more than 38 per cent of NSFC national key scientific and technological projects. However, most of the results of university research seldom become products, achieve knowledge capitalization or serve the industry in general. It has been calculated that out of the 6000 to 8000 research results produced yearly, fewer than 30 per cent may reach production, with just a third of these eventually producing economic effects. Therefore only 10 per cent of the annual research results contribute to economic growth, against figures seven times higher than that in some developed countries such as the USA and Japan (Xue, 2007). For a long time the government has encouraged...
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