An Environmental Approach
Edited by Francesc Morata and Israel Solorio Sandoval
Chapter 1: Introduction: The Re-evolution of Energy Policy in Europe
Israel Solorio Sandoval and Francesc Morata Putting more abundant energy at a cheaper price at the disposal of the European economies constitutes a fundamental element of economic progress. Messina Declaration, 1955 The energy challenge is indeed one of the greatest tests of Europe. Speech by EU Commissioner for Energy Günther H. Oettinger, on preparation of Energy Strategy 2011–2020, Brussels, September 2010 1.1 INTRODUCTION To truly appreciate European integration development, it is crucial to understand the role energy has played (and has still the potential for) throughout the more than 50 years’ history of this process. Indeed, it is hardly possible to explain the origins of the European Union (EU) without considering what happened in Europe just after the end of World War II (Lucas, 1977). Starting with the establishment of the European Coal Organisation (ECO) in 1946 and then the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation (OEEC) in 1948, energy was a cornerstone of European integration. The rationale for establishing the first Community organization in 1951, the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), lay explicitly with the energy-related challenges that Europe had to face during those years. A similar motivation lay behind the creation of the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) in 1957, with both the latter and the ECSC constituting the basic pillars of the European Economic Community (EEC). Thus, it is accurate to argue that energy is not only deeply rooted in European construction, but that it has been in itself – with more or less success – a...