An Environmental Approach
Edited by Francesc Morata and Israel Solorio Sandoval
Chapter 3: Renewable Energy and Environmental Policy Integration: Renewable Fuel for the European Energy Policy?
Jørgen K. Knudsen 3.1 INTRODUCTION The Brundtland Report in 1987 pointed to the need for amending the political–administrative systems within which sectoral policies, such as energy, are formulated and implemented, in order to achieve sustainable development (SD) (WCED, 1987, p. 313). Most crucially, the report pointed to the importance of a stronger integration of environmental concerns into sectoral decision-making (ibid.). This focus has been associated with the concept of ‘environmental policy integration’ (EPI). The EU is considered as a frontrunner in issues pertaining to EPI at a global level. In recent years, there has been an accelerated focus on climate change (see Chapter 2 by Adelle et al.). These developments are most clearly represented by the EU’s Climate and Energy Package adopted in 2008, which establishes a triple-twenty percent target for greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions, increased use of renewable energy sources (RES) and increased energy efficiency, all to be achieved by 2020 (European Commission, 2008a). Although the increased emphasis on climate change implies a more limited focus than the broader SD agenda with which EPI is related (see Chapter 2 by Adelle et al.), nearly 20 years of experience in developing and implementing EPI mechanisms have provided important lessons with direct relevance to climate change policies as well. EPI in the EU is supported by the art. 11 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) (ex-art. 6 of the EC Treaty) which requires that: ‘Environmental protection requirements must be integrated into the definition...
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