Chapter 4: Early recognition of two ‘obvious’ modus operandi
The second cause of the failure of international efforts against terrorist financing is that of a failure to perceive the full significance of the various modus operandi of terrorist financing. As has been seen in the overview of the some of the principal terrorist groups, the methods of fund-raising are varied. International law enforcement and governmental agency strategists alike appear to have discovered too late, or even not at all, certain modus operandi. However, some potential modus operandi were indeed perceived at a comparatively early stage after the 9/11 attacks, and this chapter will deal with the principal two methods so speedily detected. These are the exploitation of international NGOs/charities for terrorist financing and the potential vulnerability of Islamic financial institutions for terrorist fund transfer. With respect to the first, exploitation of international NGOs/charities for terrorist financing, there appears a paradox. This modus operandi was identified within a month of 9/11 occurring by international law enforcement and regulatory bodies and government strategic analysts; yet ten years later, little or nothing has been achieved in countering it. Since the 1990s, there has been an exponential growth in the NGO/ charity sector. This growth has been occurring since the second half of the twentieth century, but has increased progressively since the 1990s.
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