Chapter 13: Understanding malevolent creativity
Creativity has traditionally been seen as involving the “four Ps” (e.g., Rhodes, 1961): person, process, product, and “press” (i.e., the social context). These constitute, as it were, the public face of creativity. Guilford himself (1950) referred to the need for creativity to lead to something useful. Other early writers also emphasized the necessity of including products in discussions of creativity (e.g., Clifford, 1958; Gordon, 1961; Rossman, 1931). More recently, the emphasis on creative products was put with particular vigor by Bailin (1988, p. 5): “The only coherent way in which to view creativity is in terms of the production of valuable products.” The idea of “product” should be understood in a broad way: Products are often tangible, and may take the form of works of art, musical compositions, or written documents, or of machines, buildings, or other physical structures such as bridges and the like.
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