What is creativity in research and development (R & D)? How can it be achieved? These two questions are dealt with in this chapter. However, before we attempt to answer them it is important to point out that creativity is a vital part of R & D, that is, academic research and industrial research and development work. Scientists, engineers and others involved in R & D need creativity to solve difficult problems. In fact, the OECD definition of R & D includes creativity so all R & D is basically a creative endeavour (OECD, 1993). One way to approach the two questions—what R & D creativity is and how it can be achieved—is to distinguish between levels of analyses. We will discuss the three levels—individual, team and organization—on which R & D creativity may occur. Of course, individuals are the inevitable sources of creativity, but teams can add to individuals’ creativity, as can organizations.
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