Table of Contents

International Handbook on Ecotourism

International Handbook on Ecotourism

Elgar original reference

Edited by Roy Ballantyne and Jan Packer

This Handbook brings together contributions from over forty international experts in the field of ecotourism. It provides a critical review and discussion of current issues and concepts – it challenges readers to consider the boundaries of what ecotourism is, and could be. The Handbook provides practical information regarding the business of ecotourism; insights into ecotourist behaviour and visitor experiences; and reflections on the practice of ecotourism in a range of different contexts.

Chapter 5: Ecotourism and community participation

Jim Butcher

Subjects: development studies, tourism, environment, ecological economics, environmental sociology, tourism, geography, tourism


Who could possibly object to greater community participation? It suggests a greater level of control by and democracy for people – surely a laudable goal at all times and in all things. Certainly, the community participation agenda is a broad one in contemporary society, and in the developing world ‘getting local people involved’ in projects for development and for conservation is a commonplace theme. According to one account, ‘since the 1970s in many ways, community participation has become an umbrella term for a supposedly new genre of development intervention . . . [T]o propose a development strategy that is not participatory is now almost reactionary’ (To sun, 2000, p. 615). The implication of the call for greater community participation is often that it is more democratic, as it involves communities in decisions that affect their lives. It suggests a greater degree of control for the community over their destiny, rather than control being exercised from outside. Often this sentiment is articulated explicitly through terms such as ‘empowerment’. In this sense, the call for community participation in development is very much in the neo populist development tradition – it emphasizes the role of communities in their own development.

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