Chapter 8: Universities in Focus
Chapter 3 discussed various types of scientiﬁc personalities. The pioneer or trailblazer and the academic entrepreneur or organizer represented two poles on a continuous scale. Anyone who has long moved in academic circles knows how rare genuinely creative researchers are and how the system tends to favour entrepreneurs. But the system also features a third kind of researcher, who might be referred to as the keeper. They have a broad overview of a discipline and are able to summarize disparate research ﬁndings, manage the entire body of knowledge and serve as a valuable source of information, particularly for instructional purposes. One person may possess the characteristics of all three types of researcher. But ordinarily a number of people collaborate to form an organization that has the intellectual and creative capital required for success. Such capital takes a long time to build up and may quickly dissipate. Most scientiﬁc milieux contain a combination of a few pioneers and a greater number of entrepreneurs and keepers. The discussion of Figure 6.2 in Chapter 6, with respect to stable and unstable phases of development, is highly relevant to an in-depth analysis of various research settings. Breeding grounds of 93 M2809 - TORNQVIST 9781781001509 PRINT.indd 93 16/11/2011 14:10 94 The geography of creativity scientiﬁc innovation come and go. Although the renown of radical trailblazing processes is passed down through literature and oral tradition, they often last for only a short period and are associated with a few particular people. However,...
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