International Perspectives on Industrial Ecology

International Perspectives on Industrial Ecology

Studies on the Social Dimensions of Industrial Ecology series

Edited by Pauline Deutz, Donald I. Lyons and Jun Bi

With its high-level focus on industrial ecology-related policies such as circular economy and industrial symbiosis, this book provides a timely analysis of the industrial ecology experience worldwide. Editors Pauline Deutz, Donald I. Lyons, and Jun Bi combine their diverse experiences in both research and teaching to examine the topic as a business, community, and academic endeavor in different settings worldwide.

Chapter 7: Industrial waste management improvement: a case study of Pennsylvania

Donald I. Lyons, Murray Rice and Lan Hu

Subjects: business and management, corporate social responsibility, management and sustainability, environment, corporate social responsibility, environmental management, environmental sociology


Industrial symbiosis (IS), one of the major strategies put forward by industrial ecology for dealing with the perennial issue of waste, argues that industrial production and consumption must close the loop on materials and products in a manner that mimics the material efficiency of natural ecosystems. By substituting virgin material inputs with wastes and by-products, extraction is minimised, waste is minimised, material use is maximised, while also reducing energy use (Frosch and Gallopoulos, 1989). IS practices, particularly eco-industrial parks (EIPs) (planned or organically formed) and various forms of non-‘ park’-based IS have demonstrated considerable success across the world at a variety of spatial scales from the facilitated programmes of the UK (i.e., NISP) to the more top-down approaches adopted in China (Shi et al., 2012; Tian et al., 2014). Scrap materials also move over large geographic areas (Lyons, 2007; Lyons et al., 2009), mainly driven by differential regulations between countries and regions, imbalances of supply and demand, and the existence of declining transport and transaction costs (Lyons et al., 2009; Chen et al., 2012; Zhuang et al., 2012).

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