Chapter 5: Professors’ attitude to collaboration and central infrastructure for collaboration: an analysis of social capital establishment within higher education institutions
Collaboration between higher education institutions (HEI) and industry is of significant importance in the development of economic and educational policy. The European Union’s Lisbon strategy 2000 and the Bologna process highlight the aim of modernizing the higher education system; one of the important factors is the issue of establishing sustainable partnerships between HEI and the business community (Commission of the European Communities 2006). This was already emphasized in the EU research and framework programmes with a general aim to strengthen the scientific and technological bases of European industry and make it more competitive at the international level (Luukkonen 1998). Clark (1983, 1998) analysed organizational change within HEI and identified different typologies for governing HEI with an emphasis on the differences between institutional capacities to engage in collaboration with the surrounding community. HEIs have got the role of knowledge generator where academic knowledge generation is a significant foundation for career progress. Within the academic community attitudes to, and traditions of, collaboration differ between faculties, as do the incentives for researchers to participate in collaboration projects (Lee 2000; Balconi and Laboranti 2006; Foray and Steinmueller 2003; Castro et al. 2008; van Hemert and van Nijkamp et al. 2009).
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