Table of Contents

Handbook of Research on Entrepreneurship and Creativity

Handbook of Research on Entrepreneurship and Creativity

Elgar original reference

Edited by Rolf Sternberg and Gerhard Krauss

This Handbook focuses on the interdependent relationship between entrepreneurship and creativity. This relationship is analysed from the perspective of different disciplines, including economic geography, sociology, education, economics, psychology, and also in different spatial contexts.

Chapter 12: The contribution of university-industry-government interactions to creative entrepreneurship and economic development

Henry Etzkowitz

Subjects: business and management, entrepreneurship, organisational innovation, innovation and technology, organisational innovation


A triple helix regime typically begins when an existing innovation regime, whether a single helix, based on industry, or a double helix of government-industry falls into a crisis that cannot be resolved within the existing framework. Involving new actors, not traditionally directly involved in innovation like the university, restructuring others to perform new roles and creating new relationships appear to be the path to a solution. Innovation is transformed from a set of linear and reverse linear processes within industry, extending from research to the market and vice versa, to a non-linear process in the transition to a knowledge-based society. Beyond the development of new products, innovation is the creation of new configurations among the institutional spheres. University-industry-government interactions are increasingly the basis of economic and social development strategy in both advanced industrial and developing societies. The transition to a "triple helix" characterized by interdependence among relatively autonomous institutional spheres, takes place from divergent starting points of "statist" and "laissez-faire" regimes.

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