Chapter 14: A Northeast Asian Model of ODA? Comparing Chinese, Japanese and Korean Official Development Assistance
James Reilly 1. INTRODUCTION World politics is undergoing a historic transition. Rising powers such as Brazil, Indonesia, South Africa, Turkey and India are challenging longstanding institutional arrangements, international norms and practices. Permanent membership on the United Nations Security Council, leadership of the International Monetary Fund and World Bank, rules over global trade and responsibilities for climate change are all being contested. In the realm of official development assistance (ODA), a growing pluralism among aid donors and approaches has emerged as the most significant challenge to Western aid orthodoxy in decades. In response, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development’s Development Assistance Committee (OECD-DAC) is striving to reshape international norms defining effective and appropriate ODA. Yet the DAC process faces a contradiction between being more inclusive by welcoming new members, collaborating with aid recipients, and collaborating with non-DAC members, while also being more exclusive by codifying and promulgating selective norms on ODA. Contestation over normative content and pervasive hypocrisy by major aid donors further undermine DAC norms. This chapter explores one aspect of this ongoing contestation; the alternative approach to development assistance employed by Japan, South Korea and China. Having finally secured entry into DAC in January 2010, South Korea pledged: ‘Korea will formulate an original Korean assistance model that transmits the country’s successful development experience aligned to the recipient country’s national development strategies’.1 In 2010, Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao also announced the successful creation of a model 216 M2911 - DENT 9781781004463 PRINT.indd 216 29/05/2012 15:30 A Northeast Asian...
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