Table of Contents

Handbook of Research on Negotiation

Handbook of Research on Negotiation

Elgar original reference

Edited by Mara Olekalns and Wendi L. Adair

Leading international scholars give insight into both the factors known to shape negotiation and the questions that we need to answer as we strive to deepen our understanding of the negotiation process. This Handbook provides analyses of the negotiation process from four distinct perspectives: negotiators’ cognition and emotion, social processes and social inferences, communication processes, and complex negotiations, covering trade, peace, environment, and crisis negotiations.

Chapter 9: Gender and negotiation: a social role analysis

Alice F. Stuhlmacher and Eileen Linnabery

Subjects: business and management, organisational behaviour


Individual differences in negotiation and conflict attract attention, and gender, one of these differences, has emerged as an area of particular importance. The significance of gender in negotiation is due to the salience of male and female roles in society as well as the concern that negotiation gaps foster inequities between men and women in the workplace and other social spheres (Bowles and McGinn, 2008a). Our chapter overviews major research findings relating to how and why women, on average, experience negotiation differently than men. We use social role theories as an organizing framework to summarize findings. We also review contextual and environmental factors to consider in interpreting these findings. Social role theories clarify areas that enhance or ameliorate gender differences. Through this lens we review work on communication mode, negotiation tasks, framing, stereotype threat, advocacy roles, and ambiguity. In addition to considering workplace negotiations, we incorporate discussions of gendered negotiations at home, with family, in political settings, and in negotiation ethics. We conclude with ideas relating to future research.

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