Chapter 9: Conclusion
This book has set out the current international landscape for governance of genetic resources. Current efforts cover a range of types of genetic resources and several issues which cut across more than one type of resource, including:•plant genetic resources;•animal genetic resources;•human genetic resources;•microbial genetic resources;•synthetic genetic resources;•forest genetic resources;•aquatic and marine genetic resources;•pathogenic genetic resources;•collection, exchange and storage;•conservation;•protection of human rights;•protection of human, animal and plant health;•food security;•climate change;•finance, funding and capacity-building;•ownership; and•access and benefit-sharing.It can thus be seen that the appropriate management of a range of genetic resources is a vital component of international efforts to address a number of major global challenges. There are a range of international actors, rules, procedures and mechanisms already in place that have a significant impact on the governance of genetic resources. However, they do not all work in harmony with one another; there are gaps and imbalances, and a number of areas that need to be improved.Even with a focus mainly on the international organizations and international regulations relevant to genetic resources governance, the complexity of this area is obvious. Some of the rules have been specifically designed to govern genetic resources (for example the ;0;0?>Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources (ITPGR); others do so as part of a broader remit (for example, the disease control rules and rules on intellectual property rights).
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