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Edited by Alain Fayolle and Dana T. Redford
Chapter 18: Where do academic entrepreneurs locate their firms? How to access the development of entrepreneurship education at university level
University faculty members who engage in entrepreneurial activity mainly via firm creation are crucial to the effort of the entrepreneurial university in narrowing the gap between academic science and commercial applications. Accordingly, a considerable body of literature has studied these so-called academic entrepreneurs by focusing on research that has largely revolved around two general lines of inquiry: first, which academic scientists start a firm and what are the specific personal and contextual characteristics (affiliated university, social norms etc.) that influence such entrepreneurial behaviour; and, second, how academic entrepreneurs balance their academic-and business-related responsibilities (e.g., Stuart and Ding, 2006; Jain et al., 2009; Krabel and Mueller, 2009; Landry et al., 2010; Lam, 2011). This literature has advanced new knowledge that, for instance, highlights the impact of intellectual capital, workplace attributes, prior career experience and the availability of financial resources in determining whether a given academic scientist decides to enter entrepreneurship and meet both academic and business duties (Shane and Khurana, 2003; Zucker et al., 2002; Landry et al., 2006; Stuart and Ding, 2006). What has gone largely unexamined in the relevant literature is where these faculty members choose to start their firms. Academic entrepreneurs typically start their firms from research that originated at university premises. However, it is not clear that such firms are always located close to the affiliated university. Indeed, a significant percentage of spin-offs, not necessarily from academic entrepreneurs, locate far from the parent organization (Egeln et al., 2004; Berchicci et al., 2011).
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