The State of the Art and the State of Practice
Edited by Stephane Hess and Andrew Daly
Chapter 10: How urban environment affects travel behaviour: integrated choice and latent variable model for travel schedules
Since 1954 (Mitchell and Rapkin 1954) many researchers have studied the important but highly complex relation between travel demand and land use. One of the major problems discussed in the past literature was the relative importance of urban form characteristics versus socioeconomic characteristics to explain trip frequency. The conclusion from these early studies (Kitamura et al. 1997; Hanson 1982) was that the total number of trips is largely determined by demographic and socioeconomic factors but it is not strongly associated with land use characteristics. Trip frequency has been the major focus also in the recent literature, mainly with reference to specific purposes (Limanond and Niemeier 2004) or to specific categories of people (Schmöcker et al. 2005; Roorda et al. 2009; Morency et al. 2011; Paez et al. 2007). These studies mainly found that trip frequency decreases with age, but this behaviour exhibits a large degree of variability depending on spatial analysis.
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