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Edited by Paulo A.L.D. Nunes, Pushpam Kumar and Tom Dedeurwaerdere
Chapter 4: Climate change effects on the economics and management of marine fisheries
Global fisheries contribute tens and hundreds of billions of gross revenues and economic impact, respectively, each year (Sumaila et al., 2007; Dyck and Sumaila, 2010; FAO, 2011). Additionally, marine fisheries provide nearly 3.0 billion people with 15 per cent of their animal protein needs (FAO, 2011), and not only to people who reside in maritime countries of the world because international fish trade has made the contribution of fisheries to food security truly global. Recent estimates put the number of people worldwide who derive employment income from marine fisheries at about 260 million (Teh and Sumaila, 2011). So, global marine fisheries are clearly important to people. But these benefits of fisheries and many others (e.g., recreational, non-market) are currently under threat from a host of stressors, including overfishing, ocean warming, acidification and hypoxia. Climate change, in particular, will complicate the challenges currently facing global fisheries, as it has begun to alter ocean conditions, particularly water temperature and biogeochemistry. These changes are expected to affect the productivity of marine fisheries (Cheung et al., 2010). Recent studies estimate that climate change will lead to losses in revenues, earnings to fishing companies and household incomes in many regions, although some countries and/or regions may realize increases in fisheries benefits, for example, Greenland (Arnason, 2007).
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