Chapter 1: Governance and security in the twenty-first century
The Handbook of Governance and Security is intended to provide scholars with a current account and stocktaking of the conceptual evolution of security governance as well as its application to specific regional security systems, the role of institutions as critical suppliers or facilitators of security governance, and the ever-widening set of security issues that can be viewed profitably through a governance lens. The problem of global governance has increasingly gained theoretical purchase, which undoubtedly reflects at least three processes. The first, which is especially acute in Europe and North America, stems from the growing complexity of domestic governance and the inability of governments to make good on the domestic social contract without institutionalized cooperation between states. The second arises from the proliferation of security threats: the digitalization of state, economy and society has greatly complicated and compromised the exercise of state authority internally and externally; there has been an overall increase in systemic vulnerability to endogenous and exogenous shocks; and the rising salience of non-state antagonists has complicated national, regional and global security calculations. The third process that has directed scholarly and practitioner attention to the problem of global governance reflects the persistence and growth of domestic and regional non-governance, a development that not only requires an alternative to the Westphalian principal of non-intervention to address the moral imperative of relieving human suffering when possible, but amplifies the vulnerabilities of open societies and constitutionally mature states to the negative externalities of non-governance.