Chapter 24: Counter-terrorism
In the words of Keohane and Nye, governance is ‘the processes and institutions, both formal and informal, that guide and restrain the collective activities of a group’ (Keohane and Nye 2000: 202). In the absence of an overarching system of authority between states, governance mechanisms enable states to engage in rule-based relationships over a specific issue for a sustained period of time. In the field of security, with issues of state survival at stake, this is a sensitive but also an important issue. If states cannot guarantee their own security, then cooperating with others becomes a vital self-interest. Regularizing that pattern of cooperation grants each participant an expectation of reciprocity and enables states to have confidence in abiding by the agreed constraints. Norms, either informal or codified, are at the heart of the concept of governance and stem from the shared beliefs that regulate and shape the behaviour of participating states. They help to formalize the patterns of cooperation between countries that might otherwise remain unique and unrepeated. They serve to tie states into reciprocal patterns of conduct that introduce predictable relationships within a given issue area. Over time this is likely to have the effect of socializing states and reinforcing their proclivity towards cooperation. The presence of a hegemonic state may play a special role in creating and shaping patterns of security governance.
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