Success and Failure in Public–Private Partnerships
Technically, a motorway can be defined as a road that has been specially designed and constructed for motor traffic, and which is provided, except at special points or temporarily, with separate carriageways for the two directions of traffic, separated from each other either by a dividing strip not intended for traffic or, exceptionally, by other means. Additionally, a motorway does not cross at grade with any road, railway or tramway track, or footpath. The concept of the motorway can be traced initially to Italy. According to Italian scholars Ragazzi and Greco (2005), the word 'autostrada' was first coined in 1922 by the engineer Pietro Puricelli in his project 'Road Network for Motor Vehicles' in which he outlined plans for the 'Autostrada dei Laghi', the world's first intercity motorway. The word 'autostrada' has subsequently been translated into a variety of languages (so we find 'autoroute' in French, 'autopista' in Catalan and Spanish, 'autoestrada' in Portuguese, 'Autobahn' in German, and so on).