Chapter 3: The impact of strategic orientations on export marketing strategy: new classification and typology
Can a firm’s export marketing strategy (in terms of standardization/adaptation) be anticipated based on its membership in a specific set of strategic orientation groups? This theoretical chapter is designed to discuss this question. It develops theoretical paths from different classes of strategic orientations to the level of export marketing strategy adaptation or standardization via the generation of distinct capabilities. Addressing these links is in line with the recognition of the importance of strategic orientations and recent calls for further research beyond the market orientation. In a meta-analysis, Grinstein (2008, p. 126) called for the focus to be moved ‘from studying the direct effect of market orientation on business performance, to the study of the various combinations of strategic orientations that firms can pursue in different situations’. Similarly, Kumar et al. (2011) pointed to the need for empirical studies that examine the relative contribution of each orientation, and the collective contribution of some orientations, to a firm’s positional advantage, as reflected by performance. In addition, Hakala’s (2011, p. 212) review paper on orientations suggested that the complementary approach of different orientations would be ‘the most productive way to enhance the understanding of orientations as principles and activities of adaptation that support the performance of a firm’. While some managers prefer to concentrate on their companies’ visionary innovation – an inside-out approach that focuses on changing the market – others prefer an outside-in approach, as it reflects a firm’s response to consumer needs and competitors’ actions.
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