Issues, Challenges and National Policies
Comparative Perspectives on Transportation Security series
Edited by Khalid Bichou, Joseph S. Szyliowicz and Luca Zamparini
Chapter 10: Maritime and cargo security failures: European cases
The events of 9/11 may seem distant in 2013, but they precipitated a global chain of legislation that has necessitated a significant review of maritime security, from a pure marine angle with relation to vessel operations and to port operations, and this has required a complete review on the part of shipping lines and ports concerning the security of the marine sector in general. However, marine cargo security is still very much an issue, and to date the International Maritime Organization (IMO) has not implemented specific rules or codes concerning ways to tighten up security concerning the maritime movement of cargoes. To this extent, cargo security is still the responsibility of both the shipper and the shipping line, and there are no specific global standards concerning the maintenance of a global marine cargo security regime. Even the issue of container scanning has been seen as a controversial issue, and despite statements by P & I (Protection & Indemnity) Clubs concerning the need for vigilance concerning container weights and specific information concerning the carriage of dangerous goods by container, no firm action has been taken by international maritime authorities to address these issues. In the USA, some 80 per cent of incoming sea containers are scanned, and techniques are being sought to increase this to 100 per cent.
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