Chapter 10: Conclusion
There is no Europe without freedom and solidarity. (José Barroso, President of the European Commission, 2005) The idea of freedom of movement as developed in both the history of inter-state relations and in the literature on migration is far removed from the practice of mobility. As this study records, the challenges facing migrants seeking to relocate operate not only between states, as commonly featured in contemporary accounts of immigration, but also within them. Developing Faist’s (2000) transnational analysis of international migration, the case studies in this book identify multiple levels in which states, social networks and individuals influence mobility flows and thus determine the degree to which people are able to exercise their rights to freedom of movement. In this context, many of the claims made by scholars writing on inter-state migration apply equally to those seeking to relocate within states. For example, we note the relevance of Lee’s (1966) writings on differentiated access and Sassen’s discussion of the polarization of labour markets. While Sassen concentrates on the division of labour in service industries, the creation of occupational hierarchies is also born out of the studies included in this book, most notably in the accounts from Croatia, Italy and Russia. Where these studies differ, however, is in their focus on migrant identity as a factor which determines entry to protected labour markets.
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