Table of Contents

War Crimes and the Conduct of Hostilities

War Crimes and the Conduct of Hostilities

Challenges to Adjudication and Investigation

Edited by Fausto Pocar, Marco Pedrazzi and Micaela Frulli

Most charges for war crimes are brought for violations of the rules on the treatment of protected persons in armed conflict situations. However in certain cases, they are brought for serious breach of international humanitarian law rules governing the conduct of hostilities. This book seeks to address this somewhat neglected area of international criminal law.

Chapter 12: The criminalization of the use of biological and chemical weapons

Annita Larissa Sciacovelli

Subjects: law - academic, human rights, public international law, terrorism and security law


Although international conventions prohibit the use in war of asphyxiating and poisonous gases or analogous materials and ban bacteriological methods of warfare States often used biological (bacteriological) and chemical weapons in international and internal conflicts. The following are a few examples: Germany used such weapons in Belgium (1914);Italy in the Ethiopian war (1935); Japan in its war with China (1937,1945); US in North Korea (1950), Vietnam (1960), Laos (1982) and in the Kampuchea war (1975); Egypt in Yemen (1967); Portugal in the conflicts in Angola, Mozambique and Guinea Bissau (1970–1971); Indonesia in East Timor (1976–1983); Iraq in the conflict with Iran (1980–1988) and in the campaign against the Kurdish population (1988).

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