Challenges to Adjudication and Investigation
Edited by Fausto Pocar, Marco Pedrazzi and Micaela Frulli
Chapter 12: The criminalization of the use of biological and chemical weapons
Although international conventions prohibit the use in war of asphyxiating and poisonous gases or analogous materials and ban bacteriological methods of warfare States often used biological (bacteriological) and chemical weapons in international and internal conflicts. The following are a few examples: Germany used such weapons in Belgium (1914);Italy in the Ethiopian war (1935); Japan in its war with China (1937,1945); US in North Korea (1950), Vietnam (1960), Laos (1982) and in the Kampuchea war (1975); Egypt in Yemen (1967); Portugal in the conflicts in Angola, Mozambique and Guinea Bissau (1970–1971); Indonesia in East Timor (1976–1983); Iraq in the conflict with Iran (1980–1988) and in the campaign against the Kurdish population (1988).
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