Chapter 13: Grabbing an election: abuse of state resources in the 2011 elections in Uganda
Elections are an integral part of representative democracies. Well-functioning elections contribute to democratic accountability and democratic institutions, which in turn contributes to economic and human development too (Acemoglu and Robinson, 2012; Gerring et al., 2012). But the integrity and quality of the electoral process is in many countries threatened by the growing importance of money in politics: vote buying and the use of state and other illegal resources for partisan purposes (Annan et al., 2012). Electoral fraud has both economic and political consequences, as illustrated by the 2011 parliamentary, presidential and local elections in Uganda. They ended, as many observers expected, with a landslide victory for incumbent President Yoweri K. Museveni and his National Resistance Movement (NRM). The victory was Museveniís fourth consecutive election victory, after winning in 1996 and 2001 under the ëMovement-systemí when no opposition parties were allowed, and the first multiparty electoral competition in 2006.The legitimacy of the election processes and election results in all elections under NRM-rule have been questioned. Criticism has related to what we perceive to be a form of grabbing: use of public (state) resources in election campaigns for the ruling party. The importance of money and resources has been a recurring issue in the 1996, 2001 and 2006 elections (William, 1997; Tripp, 2004; Kiiza, 2008). As this chapter highlights, these problems were even more prevalent in 2011. The NRM candidates, and especially President Museveni, had distinct resource advantages compared to the opposition parties and candidates, much of it fuelled by access to the state apparatus and state finances.
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