Paying the Polluter

Paying the Polluter

Environmentally Harmful Subsidies and their Reform

Edited by Frans H. Oosterhuis and Patrick ten Brink

Pledges to reform environmentally harmful subsidies (EHS) have increased over the past few years, at both global and national levels. Paying the Polluter addresses the most important issues to be considered when embarking upon these necessary reforms.

Chapter 1: Introduction: high hopes and down-to-earth realism

Frans Oosterhuis and Patrick ten Brink

Subjects: environment, environmental economics, environmental politics and policy, politics and public policy, environmental governance and regulation, environmental politics and policy


The most ancient term of constitution is the Greek word "________"_established on the basis of the constitutionalist experience of the ancient Greek peoples and representing a kind of constitutional concept of "Inter-sub-ject relationships"_Afterwards the terms for constitution evolved based on the clue of Ancient Greek thought. The Greek word "________" was Latinized by Cicero, who objectified the concept of constitution as rules of public affairs. Cicero also made two phrases of rei publicae status and rei publicae constitutio to express constitution, andset the word of status and the word of constitutio to substitute each other. Thomas Aquinas used ordinatio civi-tatis, ordo civitatis and regimen to explain Arislotle's concept of constitution, and reduced its meaning of "inter-subject relationships" to "class relationships"_After the nation-state period, the words for constitution in many national languages emerged_such as lois fondamentales, loi politique, constitution, Verfassung, etc. They reflect the political reality of territory-nation state, which is different from the political reality of city-state reflected by ancient constitutions. As there_many words for express constitution in history, it is ex parte to only focus on the word "constitution" in researching the history of terminology of constitution in western languages.