Getting In, Getting On, Getting Out
Research Handbooks in Business and Management series
Edited by Adelina M. Broadbridge and Sandra L. Fielden
Chapter 29: Retirement – a new beginning or the beginning of the end?
Planning for retirement is a complex process influenced by personal preferences, resources, economic factors, institutional policies, and social norms (Szinovacz et al., 2013). Retirement has been described as a distinct stage in the life course, and one that in the twentieth century has been linked with an infrastructure of support (Phillipson, 2013). However, at the beginning of the twentieth century few people formally retired; this was reserved for the rich middle classes. Even though some countries had already introduced state-made provision for people to retire (for example, Sweden in 1913), it did not reach full maturity until the middle of the twentieth century, and it was not until then a set retirement age in Europe became the norm. In the UK this was set to 65 for men and 60 for women, while the official retirement age in Sweden was set to 65 for both men and women (Henkens and Schippers, 2012; Werner, 2013). With life expectancy rates being around 70 the meaning of retirement was clearly some respite before death.
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