Science, Innovation, Technology and Entrepreneurship series
Edited by Dimitris G. Assimakopoulos, Ilan Oshri and Krsto Pandza
Chapter 6: Network evolution at the science–technology overlap in the triple helix of particle therapy of cancer
The social processes which allow for scientific and technical progress have largely drawn the attention of scholars of science and technical change, and policy makers, for many years. International scientific collaboration has increased due to a number of factors internal and external to science (Wagner and Leydesdorff, 2005). Science and technology developments are intertwined (Price, 1984) and can be contextualized in the ‘triple helix’ of industry–university–government relations (Etzkowitz and Leydesdorff, 2000). Scientific and technological networks are distinctive, co-evolve and overlap to an extent (Murray, 2002) and ‘mode 2’ knowledge production involves greater transdisciplinarity and collaboration between sites (Gibbons et al., 1994). Overall this points to the underlying relational nature of innovation, which deserves researchers’ attention (Edquist, 1997; Etzkowitz and Leydesdorff, 1997).
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