This chapter presents an overview of the status of China’s water resources and water development with respect to quantity and quality, and addresses the water problems and challenges to the economic growth of the country. It covers the following aspects: China’s water resources and their spatial and temporal distribution; status of water use, water stress and water pollution in the country; water development and challenges; China’s recently renewed efforts to balance the water needs for humans and nature and safeguard water security; and implications of China’s water strategies for its international relations with neighboring countries with whom China shares waters.
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