Models, Theory and Applications
Chapter 9: Emotional models (affective models)
The emotional or affective category of models used in social marketing are those where the principal effect sought is that of emotional engagement. This engagement can be with the social marketing message, concept or ideals. Affective models are not mutually exclusive from the models presented in the previous parts of the book and much research incorporates a combination of the other models. They can usually be found with names such as cognitive-emotional models (e.g., Jones and Hastings, 2003); behavioural-emotional models (e.g., Oldenburg et al., 1999); or other combined nomenclature. We have categorized models in this chapter under ‘affect’ because the focus of these models is to bring into effect behaviour change through the influence of emotionally motivated aspects of human behaviour. The main discipline informing this chapter is psychology, although social psychology and sociology have contributed to the field. Affective models have strong track records in social marketing with a wide range of research illustrating the effectiveness of fear and other negative emotional appeals such as guilt and shame (e.g., Brennan and Binney, 2010), negative and positive message framing (e.g., Hancock et al., 2014), health branding (e.g., Evans and Hastings, 2008; Anker et al., 2011), disgust (e.g., Lupton, 2014), threats (e.g., France et al., 2013), amongst others. In addition to the largely negatively framed emotions research, there has been a recent trend towards positive psychology (see, for example, Lopez and Snyder, 2011).
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