There have often been high hopes for the contribution of interactive governance to the realization of normative goals. In this chapter we investigate whether these normative goals are actually met in real life governance processes. In the literature one can distinguish three main normative goals: interactive governance strives for enhancing efficiency, effectiveness and legitimacy. However, these goals are not realized without problems and tensions. Interactive governance needs a great deal of capacity and resources and is therefore costly and time-consuming. Moreover, there is the danger of symbolic stakeholder involvement in which real dialogue and results are not achieved. Finally, valuable input is often neglected, and there are issues with vertical accountability. Whether the high hopes are met depends on how the main three issues of inclusiveness, throughput legitimacy and accountability are resolved.
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