Russia and the Politics of International Environmental Regimes

Russia and the Politics of International Environmental Regimes

Environmental Encounters or Foreign Policy?

New Horizons in Environmental Politics series

Anna Korppoo, Nina Tynkkynen and Geir Hønneland

Russia and the Politics of International Environmental Regimes examines the political relationship between Russia and other states in environmental matters. Based on detailed empirical analysis and data, including interviews and media sources, this groundbreaking book scrutinizes the dynamics of Russia’s participation in international environmental politics.

Chapter 4: The regional case: protecting the environment of the Baltic Sea

Anna Korppoo, Nina Tynkkynen and Geir Hønneland

Subjects: environment, climate change, environmental governance and regulation, environmental politics and policy, politics and public policy, environmental governance and regulation, environmental politics and policy

Extract

The Baltic Sea is regarded as one of the most polluted sea areas in the world (HELCOM 2007). The Helsinki Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea area, agreed upon in 1974, was the first international agreement to cover an entire sea. With its governing body the Helsinki Commission (HELCOM), the Convention forms an environmental protection regime that includes all the Baltic coastal countries. Even if the impact of the HELCOM regime on the state of the environment has been rather modest as yet (see Artioli et al. 2008), the regime stands as one of the most active cases of regional environmental cooperation, offering lessons for scholars and practitioners of international environmental politics (see e.g. Haas 1993; VanDeveer 2004; Tynkkynen 2011). According to the HELCOM Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) (see HELCOM 2007), the most serious environmental problem in the Baltic Sea is eutrophication: the accumulation of excessive nutrients, mainly phosphorus and nitrogen, in the water, with subsequent accelerated primary production leading to toxic algal blooms (cyanobacteria), oxygen depletion, and biodiversity loss. These effects have a negative influence on recreational activities, tourism and fishery, and even human health. Nutrients originate mainly from anthropogenic sources throughout the drainage basin: (urban) wastewater, industrial and agricultural activities, forestry, and transport.

You are not authenticated to view the full text of this chapter or article.

Elgaronline requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books or journals. Please login through your library system or with your personal username and password on the homepage.

Non-subscribers can freely search the site, view abstracts/ extracts and download selected front matter and introductory chapters for personal use.

Your library may not have purchased all subject areas. If you are authenticated and think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian.

Further information