The Latin American Experience
Edited by Gabriela Dutrénit and Judith Sutz
Introduction to national innovation systems, social inclusion and development
Drawing on the seminal works of Freeman (1987), Lundvall (1992) and Nelson (1993), a vast literature on systems of innovation has flourished in recent years, using both a theoretical and an empirical approach. This has allowed the gradual strengthening of the concept. The theoretical path of construction has moved from the application of the concept nationwide to sectors and technologies, to regional and local levels, and then a new loop towards an enriched national focus. The approach of the national system of innovation (NSI) centres on actors, institutions and their relationships, and contributes to a better understanding both of the intrinsic dynamics of innovation as well as its connections with development processes. Most of the existing literature worldwide analyses the institutional structures associated with the NSI, concentrating attention on their adequacy for generating an increase in innovative performance and competitiveness. This leads to the generation of science, technology and innovation (STI) policies that focus on improving innovation.