Subnational Partnerships for Sustainable Development

Subnational Partnerships for Sustainable Development

Transatlantic Cooperation between the United States and Germany

New Horizons in Environmental Politics series

Holley Andrea Ralston

This fascinating volume examines the recent increase in subnational environmental policy agreements between different countries, with a particular focus on Germany and the US. Holley Ralston explores why international environmental partnerships are forming at the state level and the factors that both aid and inhibit their long-term success.

Chapter 9: Analysis and implications

Holley Andrea Ralston

Subjects: environment, environmental governance and regulation, environmental politics and policy, politics and public policy, environmental politics and policy


This book aimed to establish some generalizations about the environmental partnerships that began emerging in the 1990s between US and German states based on the following questions: What are the common driving factors leading to US and German states forming environmental partnerships? What are the results of the arrangements? What supports and hinders such partnerships in the implementation process? Finally, what are the roles that these innovative USñGerman environmental partnerships at the subnational level play in global environmental governance for sustainable development in a multi-level system? The partnerships came about in part because of structural changes in the international system, in which a multi-level governance system within which subnational-level governments, including US states and German L‰nder, play a larger role in environmental and particularly economic areas has arisen. States and L‰nder have acquired larger roles in reference to their respective national governments and the international sustainable development agenda in these two areas. Within these structural changes, the executive branch of the states gained the primary role when it comes to international activities. There were coercive pressures to act and form the partnerships.

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