The Dynamics of Policy Innovation and Paradigmatic Change
Edited by Hideko Magara
Chapter 15: Multilevel policy regimes, political cleavages and party systems: horizontal and vertical transfer of policies and its effects
This chapter offers a theoretical suggestion and a systematic review of the impact of multilevel policy regimes on political cleavages and the party system of democracies in the twenty-first century. There exist various levels of policy regimes: (a) international; (b) national; and (c) regional (subnational). These policy arenas are discussed in this chapter. I distinguish these three dimensions of policy regimes in order to highlight the mutual impacts among them by labeling policy regimes at the global, national and regional levels as 'international policy regime,' 'national policy regime' and 'regional policy regime,' respectively. These three levels of policy regimes have been closely interrelated. With the post-Cold War era, globalization became salient, overriding the boundaries of nation-states in the 1990s. Globalization has superseded both state boundaries as well as the boundaries of multilevel policy regimes that have become increasingly interrelated. Thus, the globalization and internationalization of the nation-state is a phenomenon that is witnessed the world over. This process is important in the expansion of globalization and the strong tendency of nation-states to integrate into a single worldwide market - the neoliberal practices of the 1980s. Internationalization has had an impact that has resulted in changes in the national policy regime; it is widely recognized that these changes have stimulated cleavages in each society.
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