Edited by Michiel Bliemer, Corinne Mulley and Claudine J. Moutou
Chapter 3: History and theory of urban transport planning
In this chapter, urban transport planning is defined as the planning of the transport systems for an entire urbanized area. In most cases, the planning is done for a period of about 20 years into the future and attempts to take into account such things as the growth of population and changes in the demographics of the population. In looking at the history, because there was little that was done at this scale prior to World War II, the period that this chapter concentrates on runs from about 1945 to 2000. Urban transport planning (UTP), as we have come to understand it in the developed world, appears to have evolved initially in the United States of America (USA) (Dimitriou 1992; Weiner 1992). Soon after the end of World War II in 1945, a few urban areas in the USA commenced an effort to develop procedures to undertake urban area-wide planning for transport (Weiner 1992). This had not occurred earlier largely because of the perceived magnitude of the undertaking. However, during World War II, computers began to be developed, initially for military purposes, but in the years immediately following the end of the war, computers began to move into the non-military domain. Computers at this time were physically very large, although miniscule in processing and storage capacity compared with today’s computers.
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