Chapter 3: Harmonization of substantive norms in preventive AML policy
This chapter compares the way in which EU Member States have implemented the substantive provisions stemming from the Third EU Directive. It shows that the substantive norms under the preventive anti-money laundering policy have to a large extent become harmonized within the European Union, but that the way in which Member States have implemented these norms varies considerably. This divergence may affect the legal effectiveness of Member States' preventive anti-money laundering policies. This chapter also pays attention to the recent proposal for a fourth EU Directive.
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