Table of Contents

Handbook of International Development and Education

Handbook of International Development and Education

Edited by Pauline Dixon, Steve Humble and Chris Counihan

This Handbook considers the myths and untruths that currently exist in international development and education. Using historic and contemporary evidence, this compendium redefines the international development narrative through a new understanding of 'what works', drawn from pragmatic ideas and approaches.

Chapter 21: Introduction to part IV

Pauline Dixon

Subjects: development studies, development economics, development studies, economics and finance, development economics, politics and public policy, education policy, social policy and sociology, education policy


In Part IV the focus is on improving access to and quality of schooling. Some of the authors debate the use of international aid, while others consider community based self-help, entrepreneurship and cost effective investments. Few Africans stand up and talk frankly about the internal problems Africa faces. George Ayittey does not fail to deliver in this regard. The opening chapter by Ayittey is candid and littered with facts and figures around the waste of international aid. Africa’s resources are immense, with additional tourism potential, but paradoxically a continent with such abundance and potential is mired in squalor, misery, poverty, deprivation and chaos. Economic performance is dismal with gross national product (GNP) dropping per capita. Foreign aid and multilateral lending have failed to spur economic growth, democracy or to arrest atrophy. Influx of aid seems to lead to dependency after initial squandering and looting. International aid has done more harm than good; aid seldom reaches the needy. However, even after all of these failed policies, the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) still have predicted a rise in the growth rate for Africa in 2014. But Ayittey believes there are reasons why there is a lack of admitting why after spending over $600 billion in loans and aid to Africa since the 1960s western donors won’t admit failure. African leaders show little interest in reform. Africa’s woes can be said to be ‘external’ or ‘internal’.

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