During the first global economy of the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century, Argentina became one of the richest countries on earth, while Chile was an economic backwater. During the contemporary era of globalization, liberalization and institutional reforms in Chile provided a context in which business grew, while in Argentina, institutional dysfunction made productive business hard to sustain. This book explores the complex relationships between corporate behavior, institutions and economic growth through the contrasting experiences of Argentina and Chile. In nine chapters written by prominent business historians, the work addresses the role of business in these two eras of globalization, examining the impact of multinationals, the formation of business groups, and relations between business and governments. It places the regional experience within the context of the worldwide history of globalization.