Modern science is considered by many as one of the major drivers of the increase in human prosperity over the last three centuries (North, 2010; Mokyr, 2002). However, at the very moment that humanity fails to tackle major global crises of an economic, environmental and social nature, modern science seems incapable of providing operational solutions for overcoming these current crises. This failure of the project of modern science, as it was inherited from the enlightenment, has been analysed by many scholars in recent decades and gave a new impetus to the debate on the articulation between science and society (Arendt, 1958; Latour, 1993; Funtowicz and Ravetz, 1993). To improve upon this current state of affairs, researchers and practitioners have developed new path-breaking transformative approaches to science over the last twenty years. This book analyses the contribution of these approaches to managing the transition of human societies to strong sustainability, with a particular focus on environmental and economic sciences. Scholars and practitioners who gathered in May 2009 at a major conference organized by DG Research in Europe to discuss the meaning of sustainable development for science identified two major challenges for sustainability science (Jaeger and Tàbara, 2011; Jaeger, 2011).