A wide range of scientific communities, international organizations and policy makers have documented the unprecedented sustainability crisis that humanity faces today. This crisis is most clearly visible through the excessive depletion and degradation of natural resources that accompany the pro-growth economic policies throughout the world, but this degradation also has a strong impact on the social, environmental and economic well-being of present and future generations. The role of science in this new landscape is far from trivial. On the one hand, the rapid spread of the institutions of scientific research in Europe in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries is widely considered as the root that led to the industrial revolution and the subsequent growth in population, changes in global lifestyles and consumption patterns, which resulted in substantial (and globally disproportionate) improvements in human well-being (Mokyr, 2002). On the other hand, after centuries of triumph and optimism, science is now called on to remedy the pathologies of the global industrial system. Whereas it was previously understood as steadily advancing the certainty of our knowledge and control of the natural world, studies of science in society (Funtowicz and Ravetz, 1993; European Commission, 2009) show that nowadays science is increasingly seen as having to cope with many uncertainties in dealing with complex socio-ecological systems, value-based choices and the existence of a plurality of legitimate perspectives. In response, new styles of scientific activity are being developed.