Handbooks of Research Methods and Applications series
Edited by Matthias Ruth
Chapter 10: A multi-region input–output analysis of global virtual water flows
Water is widely recognized as a global sustainability imperative. With the fast economic and population growth the demand for freshwater has increased over fourfold over the last half-century worldwide (Uitto and Schneider 1997). Water is by far the most extracted resource globally – roughly 4000 billion cubic meters, including 700 billion cubic meters groundwater (Rockström et al. 2009; Zekster and Everett 2007). Since the 1960s, water scarcity has tremendously increased (Kummu et al. 2010) and many ecosystems are affected by water scarcity (Oki and Kanae 2006). With the world economy and population continually growing, higher incomes and resource-intensive lifestyles, pressures on water resources have become unprecedented, with climate change being likely to exacerbate the problems (Vörösmarty et al. 2000). In addition, water resources are unequally distributed globally.
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