Table of Contents

Restructuring Welfare Governance

Restructuring Welfare Governance

Marketization, Managerialism and Welfare State Professionalism

Edited by Tanja Klenk and Emmanuele Pavolini

This innovative book explores the introduction and impact of marketization and managerialism in social policy by adopting a dual perspective, considering both governance and human resources. Welfare governance (e.g. welfare mix, regulation, employment conditions, customer involvement) has changed significantly in the past decade. The editors and contributors collectively assesses these processes not only by comparing different policy fields and countries, but also by taking a close look inside organizations, examining the coping strategies of professionals, and how they adapt to new models of governing welfare organizations.

Chapter 7: ‘Soft governance’ and the knowledge–power bonds in professionalism: case studies from the health care sector in Germany

Ellen Kuhlmann and Viola Burau

Subjects: business and management, human resource management, education, management education, politics and public policy, public administration and management, social policy and sociology, comparative social policy, welfare states


Over recent years, welfare systems in different countries have introduced new forms of governance to respond to a growing demand for cost-efficiency and quality management of public services. As a common characteristic, governance has moved away from mere hierarchical steering and created new forms that combine market elements, managerialism and network-based governance. The health care sector is a major area of welfare state reform where ‘softer’ modes of governing (Fierlbeck 2014; Flynn 2004; Greer and Vanhercke 2010) have transformed the role of professions, organizations and service users, and more generally, the concept of ‘public’ and the role of the state (Blank and Burau 2013; Pavolini and Guillén 2013; Saltman 2015). The various attempts of implementing new governance in the health care field have provoked scholarly debate over increasing ‘conflict’, but research also highlights ‘hybridization’ between managerial accounts and professional self-regulatory procedures (Kirkpatrick et al. 2009, 2015; Tuohy 2012; Veronesi et al. 2013). Yet ‘hybridization’ only highlights that something new is emerging but does not tell us how this happens, and what the effects on health systems are. In this chapter, we suggest moving beyond the hybridization debate. We introduce an approach that explores the governance changes in health care through the lens of ‘knowledge technologies’ and argue for context-sensitivity in the form of the ‘location’ of knowledge.

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