Table of Contents

Handbook of Chinese Migration

Handbook of Chinese Migration

Identity and Wellbeing

Handbooks of Research on Contemporary China series

Edited by Iredale R. Robyn and Guo Fei

The recent unprecedented scale of Chinese migration has had far-reaching consequences. Within China, many villages have been drained of their young and most able workers, cities have been swamped by the ‘floating population’, and many rural migrants have been unable to integrate into urban society. Internationally, the Chinese have become increasingly more mobile. This Handbook provides a unique collection of new and original research on internal and international Chinese migration and its effects on the sense of belonging of migrants.

Chapter 13: The rise of China, changing patterns of out-migration and identity implications

Biao Xiang

Subjects: asian studies, asian geography, asian social policy, asian urban and regional studies, geography, asian geography, politics and public policy, asian politics, migration, social policy and sociology, migration, social policy in emerging countries, sociology and sociological theory, urban and regional studies, migration


The stock of international migrants from China increased from 4.1 million in 1990 to 9.3 million in 2013. China is now the fourth largest source country representing 4 per cent of the world’s migrants in 2013, having moved up from the seventh representing 2.6 percent in 1990. Apart from the numerical increase, Chinese emigration is characterized by a trend of ‘upward concentration’ in emigration – meaning that more wealthy and/or well-educated people are moving to a small number of the most advanced countries in the global north. By contrast, unskilled labour migration has increased much slower, the financial returns of migration remain stagnant and the conditions of migration are uncertain, and thus migrants more vulnerable. This chapter explores how these emigration trends are related to the general developments in China over the last 30 years. The author argues that migration from China is increasingly a means of reinforcing and reproducing social inequality rather than a means of mitigating it.

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