The retail sector is one of the most dynamic economic sectors. Stores open and close, chains expand and contract, technological innovations improve efficiency, supply chains evolve, and new methods of purchasing are continuously emerging and evolving. The chapters in this Handbook on the Economics of Retailing and Distribution describe some of these changes using theory, systematic empirical evidence, and institutional details. I hope this volume will serve as a useful starting point for researchers in economics, marketing science, and related disciplines, either looking for new research questions or expanding their research programs to address questions in the areas of retail and distribution. The chapters in this volume address methodological issues, such as the structural estimation of entry games between retailers, productivity measurement when both inputs and output are not fully observable, and demand estimation with variable assortment; policy issues including mergers, zoning regulation, and the regulation of buyer power; and some recent exciting developments in technology, retail formats, and data availability. This book is divided into four main parts.