International Energy Governance

International Energy Governance

Selected Legal Issues

Rafael Leal-Arcas, Andrew Filis and Ehab S. Abu Gosh

The legal aspects at the junction of interstate energy cooperation have become increasingly important in a world that is hungry for energy security. This book focuses on selected legal issues relating to international energy governance. International law as it stands today is not well equipped to handle international energy governance issues fully. This legal deficiency affects energy security negatively. If the currently fragmented and multi-layered international energy governance regime were streamlined for greater legal cohesiveness and international political and economic cooperation, it would promote energy security. Some chapters of the book take a broader view on interstate energy cooperation, such as energy transit, energy market liberalization and energy investment. Others focus on specific areas of such cooperation, such as trade and energy; trade, environment and energy; and energy exploration and maritime delimitation disputes. The book also presents an analysis of European Union energy governance and renewable energy.

Chapter 4: Energy and law of the sea: Eastern Mediterranean Basin scenarios

Rafael Leal-Arcas, Andrew Filis and Ehab S. Abu Gosh

Subjects: economics and finance, energy economics, law - academic, energy law, environmental law, international economic law, trade law, politics and public policy, environmental governance and regulation


Energy is a matter that touches upon almost every aspect of human endeavor in the modern era. It sustains levels of modernity and fuels further industrialization and economic development. Achieving a steady and reliable supply of energy is a principal concern of all States not endowed with sufficient energy resources to meet their energy demands. In short, energy is highly desirable. On the other hand, global energy consumption draws heavily from primary energy resources that are patchily distributed, finite, and highly polluting. The fact that the mainstay of global energy derives from resources that are finite and unequally distributed across the globe is worrying, given that it makes traditional energy resources acutely desirable. In turn, this acute desirability drives competition for access and control over energy resources to such lengths that this competition often escalates into armed conflict with grave humanitarian consequences.This persistence to mainly draw energy from finite polluting energy resources– particularly hydrocarbons such as oil, gas, and coal – means that discoveries of energy reserves in parts of the globe already marred by political tension and armed conflict could contribute to further regional precariousness. One such region is the Eastern Mediterranean Basin (EMB), which includes the following entities: Cyprus, Egypt, Greece, Israel, the Palestinian Occupied Territories (namely, in the case of the EMB, the Gaza Strip), Lebanon, Syria, and Turkey.

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