Remote Human Settlements in Developed Nations
New Horizons in Regional Science series
Edited by Andrew Taylor, Dean B. Carson, Prescott C. Ensign, Lee Huskey, Rasmus O. Rasmussen and Gertrude Saxinger
Chapter 5: Gender matters: the importance of gender to settlements at the edge of the Nordic Arctic
Lisbeth Harbo and Johanna Roto INTRODUCTION: WHY IS GENDER RELEVANT IN THE CONTEXT OF SETTLEMENTS AT THE EDGE? Gender is increasingly recognised as playing a significant role in the shaping and changing of settlements in peripheral regions. Numerous studies (for example, Rasmussen, 2011; Rauhut et al., 2008; Roto et al., 2014) show that in the northern periphery of the Nordic countries (that is the Nordic Arctic), the outmigration rate of women is higher than that of men; leading to a more imbalanced gender pattern, especially in the working-ge population. In parallel interplay with other structural a demographic changes, such as general population decrease in small and peripheral settlements and growing urban centres, this means that the demographic profiles of Nordic Arctic settlements are becoming increasingly male dominated. While gender has been researched in relation to labour market structures and education choices, inquiries into gender differences specifically in relation to settlements is less prominent. In Chapter 3 of this volume the issue of gender imbalance for temporary populations in resource- ased communities in sparsely populated areas b was outlined. The purpose of this chapter is to explore the Nordic Arctic resident settlement structure in light of the gendered differences that influence demographic changes in these settlements. An overall question is how urbanisation processes are changing the gender balance within the Nordic Arctic and, more specifically, if Nordic Arctic settlements are becoming more male dominated owing to a higher outmigration of females. We do so by conducting statistical analysis at both municipal...
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