Table of Contents

China’s Urban Century

China’s Urban Century

Governance, Environment and Socio-Economic Imperatives

Edited by François Gipouloux

The achievements of China’s urbanization should not be evaluated solely in terms of adequate infrastructures, but also in their ability to implement sound governance practices to ensure social, environmental and economic development. This book addresses several key challenges faced by Chinese cities, based on the most recent policies and experiments adopted by central and local governments. The contributors offer an interdisciplinary analysis of the urbanization process in China, and examine the following key topics: the institutional foundations of Chinese cities, the legal status of the land, the rural to urban migration, the preservation of the urban heritage and the creation of urban community, and the competitiveness of Chinese cities. They define the current issues and challenges emerging from China’s urbanization.

Chapter 8: Choices between development and environmental preservation in Huangshan City

Chen Hongfeng and Wang Jingya

Subjects: asian studies, asian urban and regional studies, environment, agricultural economics, politics and public policy, environmental governance and regulation, urban and regional studies, urban economics


Sustainable development, defined as ‘development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs’, has become one of China’s national strategies since 1997. However, unsolved environmental problems in past decades have brought attention to the fact that economic development goals had become too dominant in local governmental policy making and environmental goals had often been compromised. The economic growth at the cost of environmental needs to be optimized by enhanced environmental protection (Xia, 2005). Governments are assumed to be competitive with each other and in relations with other suppliers of public goods and services (Breton, 1996). While some studies suggest that intergovernmental competition makes governments more efficient in managing local affairs, others argue that governmental competition may lead to inefficient equilibrium fiscal policy on mobile factors, or even cause a regional ‘race to the bottom’ (Grossman et al., 1999; Lee, 2003; Kunce and Shogren, 2003). Inspired by Western scholars’ studies on competitive local governments, competition among local governments in China has been widely discussed (Zhou, 2004; Pang, 2006; Fu and Zhang, 2007). Domestic studies tend to agree that unbalanced public policy making could lead to insufficient supply of public goods and loose environmental policy (Yang et al., 2008; Liu and Li, 2013). Applying a decentralized fiscal policy, the central government provides incentives to provincial governments by transfer payment of public finance.

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