In the past, there were periods when the Japanese economy and companies attracted strong interest from foreign and Japanese observers alike. The peak of this phenomenon lasted from the 1980s into the early 1990s. It is highly probable that too much attention was paid to them at that time and too much merit awarded to Japan. Conversely, it seems likely that too little attention has been paid to the Japanese economy and firms since the late 1990s, due to the decreasing performance of both. In this way, changes in Japan’s performance have strongly influenced the evaluation of Japanese companies and the economy by scholars as well as practitioners. In particular, such evaluation has almost always been combined with arguments that made reference to a “Japanese style”. Based primarily on the assumption of the uniqueness of the Japanese model, many scholars focused on various aspects of the so-called “Japanese system” in areas such as industrial relations, principles of operation and decision-making, keiretsu grouping, the main bank system, the supplier system, and industrial policy.