Table of Contents

The Search for Environmental Justice

The Search for Environmental Justice

The IUCN Academy of Environmental Law series

Edited by Paul Martin, Sadeq Z. Bigdeli, Trevor Daya-Winterbottom, Willemien du Plessis and Amanda Kennedy

This is an extended and remarkable excursus into the evolving concept of environmental justice. This key book provides an overview of the major developments in the theory and practice of environmental justice and illustrates the direction of the evolution of rights of nature. The work exposes the diverse meanings and practical uses of the concept of environmental justice in different jurisdictions, and their implications for the law, society and the environment.

Chapter 8: REDD+ implementation in Thailand – legal and institutional challenges

Wanida Phromlah and Paul Martin

Subjects: environment, environmental law, environmental politics and policy, law - academic, environmental law, politics and public policy, environmental politics and policy


Environmental justice emphasises equitable distribution of opportunities, benefits and risks over natural resources, and public participation in decision making and management. The distribution of costs and benefits of natural resources should be allocated without discrimination on the basis of caste, gender, religion or economic status, and all citizens should be able to exercise rights to natural resources upon which their livelihoods depend. These aims require effective legal and institutional arrangements. REDD+ is a carbon trading mechanism for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, and for conservation and sustainable management of forests, using a market instrument to help achieve environmental and social justice values in developing countries. A key aspect is the intention that carbon units accredited to a developing country will be ‘traded’ to offset emissions from developed country sources. In this regard REDD+ aims to support social justice, economic opportunity and inclusion for (particularly) forestry communities and indigenous people in developing countries. At the heart of the achievement of such an ambitious set of goals is the necessity of having effective forest law and institutional systems.

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